The figure of the ancient Chickasaw warrior symbolizes the Chickasaw Indians, traditionally a people of great courage. The arrows held by the figure signify the two divisions of Chickasaw tribal society. The warrior commemorates in particular the beloved Tishomingo, last of the war chiefs before the Chickasaws left their homes in the east and removed to live among the Choctaws in the west. Tishomingo started west with his people, but died along the way in 1838. When the Chickasaws separated from the Choctaws to form their own nation in 1856, they honored Tishomingo by naming their capital Tishomingo City, and by exalting his prowess on their seal.
References: Muriel H. Wright, "The Great Seal Of The Chickasaw Nation," The Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume XXXIV., (Winter 1956-57).